Discovering Statistics and Data, Third Edition
Errata in Discovering Statistics and Data by James S. Hawkes
The third bullet item should read: "In 2017, trillion text messages were sent annually worldwide, and million text messages were sent each minute in the US."
The second sentence of the last paragraph should have a period at the end of the sentence: "One satellite, however, can produce enormous quantities of data."
In the margin content titled "The Host with the Most," the last sentence should be "However, only about are thought to use the internet regularly."
The third sentence of the last paragraph should not have a comma after 'table'.
Figure 3.2.5 should have vertical gridlines running through each tickmark on the x-axis.
In the first sentence of Example 3.4.1 there should be dashes between the words in 'stem and leaf'.
In the Prison Population graph, the 6th label on the horizontal axis should be 'Thailand' instead of 'Thiland'.
Change the order of the last two pairs of numbers in the numerator of the weighted mean calculation in part a. to follow the formula with weights being the first number multiplied in each pair: .
Change the order of the last two pairs of numbers in the numerator of the weighted mean calculation in part b. to follow the formula with weights being the first number multiplied in each pair: .
The steps for Finding the Pth Percentile should be numbered from to . Each sentence of the procedure is a step.
The author's last name in the article "The Zen of Statistics" should be 'Hofstadter' instead of 'Hofstadler'.
In Figure 4.3.3, the first quartile should be '' instead of ''.
In Figure 4.3.4, there should be an outlier of on the Yankees box plot.
The word 'figure' should be 'figures' in the last sentence on the page.
The sentence under the top left figure in Figure 5.2.4 should read: "As x increases y tends to increase."
The sentence above Figure 5.2.6 should be moved to the end of the sentence immediately below the figure.
In Figure 5.2.5, the slope of the line is off slightly. The line should be steeper and clearly go through points and .
The y-values of the data points on the graph "Percent of Overweight Americans Based on BMI" vary slightly from the y-values in the table.
The y-values of the data points on the graph "Percent of Overweight Americans Based on BMI" with the trend line, vary slightly from the y-values in the table.
In the Technology tip in the margin, replace 'Tableau' with 'Microsoft Excel.'
In the Summary box, the formula for the relative frequency of the event "getting a head" should be: .
The first sentence of Example 6.1.2 should read: "In Experiment 3, let A be the event of observing an even number when rolling a six-sided die."
In the definition for Probability Law 4 the first sentence should read "The sum of the probabilities of all outcomes in a sample space must equal one." In the next sentence replace 'event' with 'outcome'.
In Exercise 5 the word 'desert' should be 'dessert'.
There should be a thick line representing the bar for in Figure 7.5.1.
The tickmarks on the x-axis should be removed in Figure 7.5.3.
The second sentence in the solution should read: "Based on previous experience, we assume that the number of defects is approximated by a Poisson distribution with Poisson parameter λ as follows."
In the second sentence of Example 8.1.1 the word 'the' should be inserted before 'distribution.'
In Example 8.4.1, the first equation in the solution should be:
The third word in the Normal Probability Plot definition should be 'probability' instead of 'probabilty'.
The first sentence below the bar graph should read "Clearly, the histogram does not have a bell shape, so we would reject the belief that bill-length ratio is normally distributed."
In the solution of Example 8.6.1, the bar above 18 appears filled in (when you zoom out) and shouldn't be.
There should be a header at the top of this page titled "Is There a Familiar Pattern to the Variability of ?".
The sentence before Example 9.4.1 should read: "Since the sampling distribution of is known, probabilities for various errors of estimation can be determined."
The second sentence of Example 9.4.1 should be "If the true proportion in the population that prefers Pepsi is really , what is the probability that less than of the persons in the sample will prefer Pepsi?"
The sentence in Example 9.4.2 prior to the graph of the distribution of should read: "To find the probability that is within of the true proportion, we must find….."
The last sentence prior to Table 10.2.1 should have the parentheses removed from around .
The last part of the technology tip in the margin should have you navigate to Technology Instructions > Confidence Intervals > z-Interval.
The output at the top of the page should be titled "One-Sample Z Descriptive Statistics." The value under SE Mean should be and the CI for μ should be .
The values for the endpoints of the confidence interval at the end of the last sentence in Example 10.2.2 should be instead of and instead of .
In the first paragraph of the section following Example 10.2.2, the word 'variance' should be replaced with 'standard deviation' in both sentences.
In the first sentence of the second paragraph, remove '' and replace with "the population is approximately normally distributed".
In the variable description of the proportion below the third paragraph there is a typo. Replace 'posses' with 'possess'.
In the second sentence of the Solution to Example 10.3.2, replace with . The sentence should read: "Note our sample is large enough such that and ."
The expression between the last two paragraphs of the solution of Example 10.4.1 should be .
Under the subheading titled "The Correct Formulation of the Null Hypothesis…", the next to last sentence should have the word 'the' removed prior to the word 'contradict' so that the sentence reads: "Because the null hypothesis is presumed to be true, this hypothesis is not rejected unless there is overwhelming evidence to contradict ."
In Example 11.1.2, replace the last sentence of the first paragraph with the sentence "What are the correct hypotheses?".
Under the procedure titled "Performing a Hypothesis Test Using P-Values," the second bulleted item should read "If the computed P-value is greater than or equal to , fail to reject the null hypothesis.
In the first sentence under Step 4 of Returning to Example 11.2.1, replace 'critical value' with 'test statistic.'
In the first sentence below the figure at the top of the page replace the P-value with .
In Step 5 replace the P-value with .
In the figure at the bottom of the page there should be a vertical line at separating the two shaded regions.
In the sentence prior to the procedure box, the word 'statistics' should be 'statistic.'
The title at the top of the page should have the question mark removed.
The next to last sentence in the first paragraph should read: "Some of the technical details concerning the distribution of the test statistic change, since the sample standard deviation, s, will be used in place of the population standard deviation, ."
In the procedure box the 't' in 'two-tailed test' should be in bold font.
The variable definitions at the bottom of the procedure box should have commas at the end of the first three lines following 'where,'.
The fourth sentence of the solution to Example 11.6.1 should read: "Considering that a test statistic this large would result from ordinary sampling variation is only about eight in a million samples, ...".
The correct source for the margin content titled "Hypothesis Testing Is Not Loved by All Statisticians" is an unpublished article by Marks R. Nester titled "A Myopic View and History of Hypothesis Testing."
The Greek letter after 'same' should be removed from the third sentence of Example 12.1.2.
In the note in the margin the alternative hypothesis should be :
The first word after the procedure box should be 'Provided' instead of 'Providing'.
The scale of the boxplot graph at the top of the page should have a y-axis scale that starts at with increments of .
In the statement of the hypotheses above Step 2, the three occurrences of ' proof' should be '-proof'.
The t-distribution curve in Step 4 should have a tickmark below the mean with a label of .
In the first sentence of the Technology tip in the margin, the word 'calculated' should replace 'calulated'.
In Example 13.2.1, the equation should not be on the graph.
In the second Note, there should be a period at the end of the sentence: "We are confident in the procedure."
In the sentence before the properties box, the comma should be removed between 'values' and 'for'.
The content in the two procedure boxes should be contained in one box and the heading of the second box removed.
The three sentences following the procedure box on page 669 and continuing to the next page should be removed.
In the first full paragraph on the page, there should be a question mark at the end of the fifth sentence: "The fundamental question is how large must the F-value be in order to believe the model has some explanatory power?"
In the sentence in parentheses above Step 4, SST should be Total SS.
In the bottom row of the Analysis of Variance table, SST should be Total SS.
In the last paragraph, the first sentence should read: "If the value of the F-statistic falls in the rejection region or the P-value for the test statistic is less than , then reject the null hypothesis." The next sentence should read: "If not, then do not reject the null hypothesis."
In the sentence above the definition box, the first occurrence of "" should be "" and the second occurrence should be "".
In the second sentence below the formula box for the Sum of Squares for Treatments, the notation in parentheses for the treatment means should be instead of .
The first sentence of Step 5 should read as follows: "Since the resulting value of the test statistic, , is less than the critical value of , we fail to reject the null hypothesis." At the end of the following sentence the 'P' in 'P-value' should be italicized.
The second sentence of Step 6 should read: "Thus, we cannot conclude that there is a difference in average sale price among the three sales reps."
In exercise 13 remove 'a' in front of '30-year' in the first sentence.
The period following the expression for at the top of the page should be removed.
The shape of the graph is not accurate for a chi-square distribution with 2 degrees of freedom.
In the solution of Example 17.1.2, there should be a colon after "Step 1" in the sentence: "Step 1: Determine the null and alternative hypotheses."
The third and fourth sentences below the table in Example 17.2.1 should be modified to read as follows: "The next lowest-priced stock is AT&T Inc., which is assigned a rank of 2. The highest-priced stock is 3M Co., which has a rank of 9."
In the procedure box the heading 'Hypothesis:' should be 'Hypotheses:'.
The first sentence under the heading Assumptions in the procedure box should read: "Data is such that it can be ranked."
In the procedure box the heading 'Hypothesis:' should be 'Hypotheses:'.
The sentence above the diagram in the solution for part a. of Example 17.5.1 should have 'a' before ' level of significance.'
The sentence above the diagram in the solution for part b. of Example 17.5.1 should have 'a' before ' level of significance.'
The first sentence of the solution in Example 17.5.2 should have 'a' before ' level of significance, ...'.
In the last paragraph, the second sentence should read: "The critical value can be found in Table G of Appendix A as .".
The rank sums for each type of brake pad in the table of Example 17.6.2 should be under the Rank columns.
The first sentence should read: "Referring to Appendix A, Table G, we can see that .".
In part b., Critical values =, .